A pigment is a material that changes the colour of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. In other words, it’s a substance that appears a certain colour because it selectively absorbs certain wavelength of light.
The primary purpose to use pigments is to provide colour to materials, whether they are textiles or paints. Some people often consider pigments and dyes to be the same but they’re quite different. The major difference between the both is in terms of their solubility.
While a dye can dissolve by itself in a liquid, pigments can be dissolved in a liquid with the help of a binder. Dyes are primarily applied in the textile and paper industry, pigments are used in industries such as colouring paints, inks, cosmetics, and plastics.